In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.
"There is an unbroken historical record of the Shroud from fourteenth-century France to its current residence in Turin, Italy. Although its whereabouts before that time are unknown, circumstantial evidence has been used to try relating it to earlier contexts in the Middle East (Maher, p.67), including the Gospel accounts. Church authorities challenged the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin from the time of its earliest known historical appearance. French Bishop Pierre d‟Arcis complained in 1389 to Pope Clement VII, during the Avignon Papacy, about something the bishop considered to be a forged shroud being promoted for gain within his diocese. The two primary questions regarding the Shroud have concerned its age and the origin of its image."
Tubiolo, Justin A.
"Enigma of the Shroud of Turin,"
Verbum: Vol. 8
, Article 17.
Available at: https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/verbum/vol8/iss2/17