In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.
"The basic rites of Islam that were revealed to the Prophet are the “pillars” of Islam. These are considered to be the entire ritual structure of the Islamic religion because they are the five essential and obligatory practices that all Muslims follow. These pillars also “have certain disciplinary effects in curbing the excess desires of the believers, in teaching them to do things together for the welfare of the group and for the purification of their souls” (Farah, 135). The five rituals consist of: 1.) Shahada, the profession of faith, 2.) Salah, prayer, 3.) Zakah, almsgiving, 4.) Siyam, fasting, and 5.) Hajj, the pilgrimage."
"The 5 Pillars of Islam,"
Verbum: Vol. 2
, Article 9.
Available at: https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/verbum/vol2/iss2/9