Primordial Germ Cell (PGC) migration occurs in early embryonic development and is highly conserved across taxa. PGC migration occurs within the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) in zebrafish, making the organism an efficient model for observing the migration pathway. Proper PGC migration is necessary for normal gonad development and, in some species, sex determination. Disruption of this process leads to defects in gonad formation and abnormal sex determination and differentiation. Studies show that endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) disrupt PGC migration in zebrafish. BPA is an estrogenic compound that has been linked to a variety of human diseases, including various cancers, diabetes, reproductive disorders, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. It is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds worldwide, as it is used to make polycarbonate plastics. Many studies provide evidence of the harmful effects of BPA on living organisms. In response, manufacturers have started to use replacements such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). However, due to their structural similarity, it is likely that BPF and BPS are just as harmful to organisms as BPA. In this study, we use antibody staining and immunofluorescence microscopy to confirm that BPA exposure results in abnormal PGC migration in zebrafish embryos, as previously studied, and to illustrate that BPF and BPS exposure results in similar PGC migration defects.
Safura, Siti Sarah; Roba, George; and Freeman, Edward A. (2019). "Evaluating the Effects of Bisphenols F and S with Respect to Bisphenol A on Primordial Germ Cell Migration in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Using Immunofluorescence Microscopy." American Journal of Undergraduate Research 16.3, 69-77.