OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, dosing, drug interactions, and administration of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, and comparing the benefit and risk aspects of using these agents in the older adult diabetes patient population.
DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS: A search of PubMed using the terms "SGLT-2 inhibitors," "canagliflozin," "dapagliflozin," "empagliflozin," "efficacy," and "tolerability" was performed to find relevant primary literature on each of the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors currently approved for use in type 2 diabetes. Phase III trials for all agents were included. All English-language articles from 2010 to 2015 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance to this paper. In addition, related articles suggested in the PubMed search were also reviewed. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have shown a reduction in hemoglobin A1c values and fasting plasma glucose levels with a low incidence of hypoglycemia. The incidence of mycotic infections is increased in patients taking an SGLT-2 inhibitor.
CONCLUSION: SGLT-2 inhibitors may be a viable treatment option for patients not controlled on other oral agents. The risk of hypoglycemia is small. However, the clinical efficacy and tolerability of these agents has not been fully elucidated in older and frail patients.
Nathan, Kobi T.; Ahmed-Sarwar, Nabila; and Werner, Paul M. (2016). "SGLT-2 Inhibitors: A Novel Mechanism in Targeting Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus." The Consultant Pharmacist 31.5, 251-260.
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