Vaccination has been widely used as a mode of protection against various diseases by taking advantage of host's immune system. Even though vaccination has provided relief from many infectious diseases, vaccination for cancer still remains a challenge. Cancer is caused by mutated cell functioning leading to uncontrolled growth in the organ of genesis and further possible metastasis worsens the situation. In spite of various current therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, we are still lacking behind in the race with this evolving disease. There are two major approaches for vaccination: prophylactic or therapeutic. Prophylactic vaccines find their applications in the prevention of viral, bacterial, or parasitic infectious diseases such as influenza, HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, pneumonia, polio, small pox, etc., which are caused by foreign antigens. However, in the case of cancer, which is caused by mutated self-cells, vaccine formulation is a challenging task as it requires immune response against self-cell antigens without causing auto-immune response.
Chablani, Lipika; Mulla, Nihal S.; Selvaraj, Periasamy; and D'Souza, Martin J. (2015). "Mucosal Delivery of Particulate Breast Cancer Vaccine." Nanoparticulate Vaccine Delivery Systems , 171-184.
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