Date of Award/Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

MS in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education


Based on the literature, the largest stumbling blocks to curricular reform at the elementary level are a lack of teacher math content knowledge and a lack of modeling of standards-based classroom practices. This study examines the effect on classroom .practices, especially in the area of teacher initiated, critical thinking questions, when these barriers are removed by providing teachers with sustained, standards-based professional development that: expands content knowledge through modeling, hands-on, inquiry-based, constructivist teaching, models and emphasizes the use of critical thinking questions, encourages collaborative learning, and provides immediate opportunities for implementation and reflective practices.