Date of Award/Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

MS in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education


Manipulatives and games are used in mathematical instruction in today' s classrooms. Research on a small first grade classroom has shown whether or not manipulatives and games have helped motivate student learning and participation. This research has shown whether students benefit from the use of games and manipulatives or from the use of worksheets and rote instruction. Many different manipulatives, games, and technology were used in this first grade classroom. Students participated in lessons that included games using manipulatives, worksheets with manipulatives, games without manipulat1ves, and worksheets without manipulatives. During the lessons where students were not given the opportunity to use manipulatives, they tended to find other means to help them. This researcher has found that using games and manipulatives is an essential part of mathematical instruction in the elementary classroom.