PURPOSE: The ATS/IDSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) guidelines suggest that clinical improvement of VAP should be apparent within 3-6 days. Anecdotally, such improvement has not been noted in trauma patients at our institution. The current study was conducted to evaluate resolution of clinical signs of VAP following diagnosis.
METHODS: Critically injured adults admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (TICU) from 6/1/06-12/31/07 and subsequently diagnosed with VAP were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical signs, including derangements of maximum temperature (Tmax), white blood cell (WBC) count and Pa02/FiO2, were evaluated on days 1-16 following VAP diagnosis. Data are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise stated. Clinical parameters following VAP were compared using repeated measures ANOVA with the Tukey test for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were identified. Data for the 34 patients without concurrent infections are presented. Demographic data include: Age 46 ± 17 years; 71% males; 94% blunt trauma; median (IQR) Injury Severity Score 29.5 (24 to 38); duration of mechanical ventilation 33 ± 27 days; ICU length of stay (LOS) 39 ± 25 days; hospital LOS 53 ± 33 days. Clinical signs following VAP diagnosis (Figure): Tmax (°F): Day 1=101.8 ± 1.3, Day 3=101.1 ± 1.1, Day 6=101.1 ± 1.4, Day 16=100.1 ± 3. Compared to Day 1, there was a significant reduction in Tmax at Days 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 (p < 0.05 for all). WBC count (cells/μL): Day 1=12.9 ± 5, Day 3=13.7 ± 5, Day 6=14.4 ± 5, Day 16=13.8 ± 6. There was no significant difference in WBC count on Days 1-16 (p=0.42). PaO2/FiO2: Day 1=232 ± 108, Day 3=200 ± 87, Day 6=218 ± 104, Day 16=246 ± 126. Differences in PaO2/FiO2 on Days 1-16 did not reach statistical significance (p=0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: In trauma patients, improvement of clinical parameters following diagnosis of VAP is delayed beyond the 3-6 day timeframe suggested in the ATS/IDSA guidelines. Alternative methods for determining resolution of VAP in trauma patients should be investigated. METHODS INTRODUCTION
Connor, Kathryn A.; Swanson, Joseph M.; Wood, G. Christopher; Boucher, Bradley A.; and Magnotti, Louis J., "Resolution of Clinical Signs in Trauma Intensive Care Unit Patients Following Diagnosis of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia" (2010). Pharmacy Faculty Publications. Paper 36.
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