Formulation Approaches for Ocular Drug Delivery

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Book Chapter

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This chapter aims to provide the readers a comprehensive review of the current trends and approaches used in the development of ocular drug delivery systems. After the introduction to the topic, the chapter begins with a brief description of the common anatomical and physiological factors that are barriers to ocular drug transport and presents a persistent challenge to the development of formulations targeted to ophthalmic tissues. Further, traditional as well as relatively newer approaches used in the development of ocular formulations are discussed. Approaches such as viscosity modifiers, penetration enhancers, liposomal delivery, niosomes, microemulsions, prodrugs, and nanotechnology-derived approaches are extensively reviewed. These approaches are described with respect to the materials, formulation development, formulation performance, relative advantages and drawbacks, and recent advances in the technology. Additionally, the design approaches for the modified ocular drug delivery such as ocular implants, inserts, lenses, and ocular shields are described with respect to the formulation development. Finally, ocular drug delivery systems that are relatively newer or employed less frequently such as intravitreal injections, ocular iontophoresis, etc. are discussed. All approaches described are supported with relevant examples and up-to-date literature reports.