Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ocular Drugs

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



This chapter aims to provide the readers a systematic overview of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs intended for ophthalmic use. The concepts of ocular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are briefly discussed in the introduction. The chapter begins with a discussion on the common anatomical and physiological factors such as blood–ocular and tear fluid–corneal barriers, as well as anterior segment drug loss; and the challenges these factor pose in describing ocular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The biopharmaceutics of the ocular drugs describes common pathways of ocular drug absorption. Further, commonly employed routes of administration for ocular drugs are discussed with respect to the choice of the route, properties of the drug, the nature of the ocular disease, the targeted ocular tissue, and the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drugs administered through the route. The pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models that describe the fate of ocular drugs are further reviewed. Finally, recent advances and current trends in understanding of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of ocular drugs are discussed based on the reported findings of the scientific and medical community.